Cancer Treatment in India

What is Cancer?

cancer

The term cancer is used for certain diseases when there is uncontrollable abnormal growth of cells that are able to invade other tissues. The cancer cells can spread to the different body parts by the means of lymph systems and blood. Cancer cannot be regarded as one disease rather it is made up of many diseases. More than 100 types of cancers are there that are named after the type of cell or organ from where they start.

The types of cancer can be categorized into different groups. Some of the major categories are: –

  • Central Nervous System Cancers: This type of cancers starts in the tissues of the spinal cord and brain.
  • Carcinoma: This type of cancer starts in the tissues or in the skin or can also cover internal organs. Carcinoma cells can be further categorized into different subtypes that include basal cell carcinoma, transitional carcinoma, adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma.
  • Leukemia: This type of cancer begins in blood-forming tissue that includes bone marrow that produces a large number of abnormal blood cells that enter into the blood.
  • Sarcoma: This cancer begins in fat, blood vessels, cartilage, bone, muscle or any other supportive or connective tissue.
  • Lymphoma: This type of cancers starts from the cells of the immune system.

 

The most significant diagnostic tool used in the study of oncology is medical history. It includes specific symptoms experienced by the patient and nature of complaint. Other diagnostic tools are :-

Causes of Cancer:Usually cancer develops in many years. The disruption of DNA is the initial phase from where the cancer starts to begin. This disruption is due to many reasons that include use of certain chemicals, diet, reproductive history, sun exposure and tobacco. It has also been seen that not all tumors are cancerous; they are either malignant or benign :-

  • Malignant Tumors: These tumors are considered as cancerous and they surround the nearby tissues while spreading to different parts of the body.
  • Benign Tumors: These tumors are considered as non-cancerous and can also be removed. It has also been seen that after removal they do not come back again. The cells in this type of tumors do not spread to different parts of the body.

 

Symptoms of Cancer

There are no definite symptoms of cancer as it arises from a variety of sites and develops with a number of conflicting patterns of spread. Cancer is very different from diseases like arthritic disease or heart disease. The primary site of the cancer defines the exact nature of its symptoms. These symptoms also depend on the rate of development, location in an organ and also whether secondary spread is there or not. A lump or swelling is caused when primary tumors develop at an accessible or visible part of the body that includes oral cavity, skin, testicle or breast. The usual swelling caused by is painless at its initial stage, although skin breakdown (ulceration) may occur that can be painful.

Cancer Treatment Options

  • Radiation Therapy
  • Hormone Therapy
  • Chemotherapy
  • Biological Therapy (Immunotherapy)
  • Surgery
  • Alternative and Complementary Therapy